System Physiology

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12 juni 2017

1) a. Describe the mechanisms by which the human body sensen rises in blood glucose levels (which and how) and how it results in lowering the glucose levels. b. Dexcribe some disease(s) associated with a failure to decrease blood glucose levels. What test can be performed to detect these diseases? What threatment could be used? c. What are the physiological consequences for the human body when left untreated?

2) a. Compare the mechanism of excitation, contraction of the skeletal and heart muscle cells. Also compare the time course of electrical and mechanical activity + the physiological consequences. What is the impact of adrenaline an the heart muscle? b. Draw the tension-length curve for skeletal and heart muscle. Give the differences. What is the impact of adrenaline for the heart and explain the mechanisms. c. Draw the velocity-load curve and the power-output curve for the heart and skeletal muscle. What is the impact of adrenlaine on the heart muscle?

3) Short Questions:

1. What happens to the rest memebrane potential if the extracellular concentration of potassium increases from 5 mM to 6-7 mM. What are the physiological consequences for the excitable cells (neurons, cardiomyocytes).

2. Relation between inulin excretion and filtration, and plasma concentration of inulin is given. a. What parameter can be derived from this curve and explain the necessary mechanisms. Also calculate this parameter. b. Draw on the curve what happens in case of renal failure. c. Depict similar curves for peniciline and glucose.

3. True or false? The brain hemispheres symmetrical.

4. A patient comes with an enlarged thyroid gland. However the concentrations of T3 and T4 were low when measured. Explain and predict the levels of TRH and TSH compared to a healthy individual. What therapy would you suggest?

5. Give an example of a technological development that improved human health. Shortly explain which pathology it helps and the physiological principles.

6 juni 2016 (VM)

1) Describe the influence on the neurons of a small (5 mMol to 6mMol) and a large (5 mMol to 30 mMol) increase in the extracellular [K+]. What hormone will be secreted due to such an increase, which type, where is it secreted and by which mechanism does it function. (4 ptn.)

2) Given is the volume/pressure loop of the heart. Describe this by indicating what happens between the difference points and on the points itself. Indicate the EDV and the ESV on the graph. Calculate the stroke volume (SV). What is the influence of a higher blood pressure? What is the influence of adrenaline? (4 ptn.)

3) Small questions (6 ptn.):

-- Explain what happens to the brain function if the blood glucose level drops for a patient that has diabetis.

-- Give the name and function of the different glial cells of the nervous system.

-- Why do woman suffer from bone loss during menopause?

-- What is the function of the cerebrospinal fluid? How is it produced and resorbed? How can one determine its content and what doet this indicate?

4) 10 multiple choiche questions with guess correction (-0.6 or -0.2 depending on the number of possible answers) (6 ptn.)

1) De vingertoppen hebben vergeleken met de elleboog: (+0,6/0/-0,6) a) Minder maar grotere receptieve velden b) Meer maar kleinere receptieve velden

(2) Een dissectie hart ondergedompeld in oplossing met de nodige ionen en glucose zal: (+0,6/0/-0,2) a) Stoppen b) Tragere HR hebben … c) Gelijkaardige HR hebben … d) Hogere HR hebben als in een intact lichaam

(3) Temperatuur en pijn worden gevoeld door: (+0,6/0/-0,2) a) Anterolaterale pathway, gekarakteriseerd door grote receptieve velden b) Anterolaterale pathway, gekarakteriseerd door kleine receptieve velden c) Dorsale kolom pathway, gekarakteriseerd door grote receptieve velden d) Dorsale kolom pathway, gekarakteriseerd door kleine receptieve velden

(4) Bipolaire cellen in ON-center type van visuele velden hebben: (+0,6/0/-0,6) a) Metabotropische glutamaat receptoren b) Ionotropische glutamaat receptoren

(5) Proximale tubulus cellen vormen een epitheel laag die: (+0,6/0/-0,2) a) Dicht absorberend is b) Lekkend absorberend is c) Dicht secretief is d) Lekkend secretief is

(6) ECG op figuur => Welk defect? (+0,6/0/-0,2) a) ‘dropped’ heart beat b) Complete blok van AV geleiding c) Atriale fibrillatie d) Ventrikel fibrillatie

(7) Toename in fysiologisch bereik van arteriole bloeddruk geeft een toename in renal bloed flow (+0,6/0/-0,6) a) True b) false

(8) Gebruik skeletspier => de spiervezels die eerst gerekruteerd worden zijn: (+0,6/0/-0,2) a) slow-twitch glycolytisch b) slow-twitch oxicatief c) fast-twitch glycolytisch d) fast-twitch oxidatief

(9) Kleine last hebben: (+0,6/0/-0,2) a) 1st isotonisch, dan isometrisch b) 1st isometrisch, dan isotonisch c) Enkel isotonisch d) Enkel isometrisch

(10) volgende PET weergeeft (PET afbeelding van hersenen): (+0,6/0/-0,2) a) Horen van woorden b) Zien van woorden c) Genereren van woorden d) Spreken van woorden

Oude examenvragen

Heleboel oude vragen op de site van vtk, die vandaag (2012) nog relevant zijn (zelfde prof, zelfde cursus en examenvorm).

Mijn vragen waren (juni 2011) - Het hart (eigenlijk volledig uitleggen) - De nieren (dynamische regeling, ook volledig uitleggen eigenlijk met focus op de regeling met ADH, vasa recta enzoverder) - Daarna nog een heleboel "parate kennisvraagjes", over spiercontractie, zwangerschapshormoon, oestrogeen + RankL + osteoporose, Alzheimer, enzoverder

10 june 2014

Question 1: The autonomous nervous system (10pts)

Provide a clear overview of the structure, organization and functions of the autonomous nervous system using an integrated scheme or figure, including the neuronal fibers, transmitters, receptors,... Also, indicate the control center of the autonomous nervous system.

Question 2: Comparison heart and skeletal muscle (10 pts)

a) Compare the excitation-contraction coupling between a cardiac ventricular myocyte and skeletal muscle cell in i) a schematic representation of these systems and in ii) a graph in which you compare the temporal profile of the action potentials, intracellular [Ca2+] changes and the force generation.

b) Make a graph in which you depict the force as a function of the length of the muscle for both the cardiac and skeletal muscle. Clearly indicate similarities and differences.

Question 3: Electrocardiogram (10 pts)

a) Explain via a figure the concept by which the three different leads in an ECG are obtained.

b) Explain via a figure how the different peaks in Lead II of the ECG relate to the different physiological events of the heart.

c) Draw an ECG in which there is delayed atrioventricular node activation

Question 4: Kidney function (10 pts)

Explain why untreated diabetic conditions will lead to excess production of (sweet) urine integrating all necessary concepts about kidney function.

Question 5: Key concepts in physiology (10 pts)

a) Explain why osteoporosis is a regular occurring problem during menopause.

b) Explain why an increased blood pressure negatively impacts cardiac function.

c) Give an example of a neurohormone and its physiological function.

d) Explain the physiological consequences of demyelination of axons.

e) Extracellular [Ca2+] ought to be maintained at constant level at 2 mM. Provide a graph showing how the levels of hormones impacting extracellular [Ca2+] are affected by the extracellular [Ca2+] (range from 0 to ~5mM).

Multiple choice (no guess correction) (10pts)

1) A woman who is ~7 weeks pregnant enters the hospital complaining about serious pain conditions. Clearly, the proper progress of the pregnancy has to be monitored. How would you achieve this? a) measure the progesterone levels b) measure the progesterone levels and repeat the measurement after three days c) measure the oestrogene levels d) measure the oestrogene levels and repeat the measurement after three days e) measure the human chorionic gonadotrophe hormone levels f) measure the human chorionic gonadotrophe hormone levels and repeat the measurement after three days

2) A patient suffers from a irregular heart rhythm. A pacemaker device will be implanted. The lead electrode will be placed at: a) right atrium b) left atrium c) right ventricle d) left ventricle e) central part between atrium and ventricle

3) A nuclear disaster has caused release of radioactive elements, including radioactive ions. Radioactive contamination in the human population can be efficiently monitored at the level of: a) adrenal gland b) brain c) thyroid gland (<-) d) kidney

4) A person enters the hospital with low heart rhythm, but normal contractility. After blood analysis the condition seems to be caused by disturbed ionic homeostasis linked to a slight deficiency in: a) extracellular Na+ b) extracellular K+ (<-) c) extracellular Ca2+ d) extracellular Cl-

5) The absolute refractory period of a neuronal action potential is due to: a) opening of voltage-dependent Na+ channels b) closure of voltage-dependent Na+ channels c) inactivation of voltage-dependent Na+ channels (<-) d) de-inactivation of voltage-dependent Na+ channels

6) The progesterone receptor is: a) a plasmalemmal-located G-protein coupled receptor b) a plasmalemmal-located tyrosine-kinase receptor c) a plasmalemmal-located DNA-binding domain receptor d) a intracellularly-located G-protein coupled receptor e) a intracellularly-located tyrosine-kinase receptor f) a intracellularly-located DNA-binding domain receptor (<-)

7) Even a minor change in levels of K+ in the extracellular fluid is a very potent trigger for the secretion of: a) glucagon b) estrogen c) aldosterone (<-) d) anti-diuretic hormone e) parathyroid hormone f) calcitonin

8) The membrane potential of pancreatic beta cells is very sensitive to: a) increase in blood glucose levels (<-) b) decrease in blood glucose levels c) increase in amino acid levels d) decrease in amino acid levels e) increase in triglyceride levels f) decrease in triglyceride levels

9) A major excitatory neurotransmitter of the CNS is: a) Glutamate (<-) b) glycine c) adrenaline d) acetylcholine

10) Dissecting the heart out of the human body and placing it in a solution with glucose and all necessary ions will result in the following observation: a) the heart will stop beating ( no heart rhythm) b) the heart will continue beating at a slower pace ( decreased heart rhythm) c) the heart will continue beating at a faster pace (increased heart rhythm) d) the heart will continue beating with a pace similar to the one observed in the human body ( heart rhythm is unaffected)

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